Plant List for Barbolian Fields (it’s a jungle out there!)

Ultimate Plant List!

Most people don’t realize how many plants I have growing out there. In fact, I, too, was one of those people! Hence, the need for a plant list. Well, I have been working on this list a long time and have finally come to the realization that it will never be finished until I, too, am planted. And I am ok with that! Surely, I have forgotten a few things! And I might have gotten a few of the scientific names wrong. Corrections, additions, subtractions will be added as time permits. This is, after all, a “living” document.

Permaculture enthusiasts have a handy way of grouping plants according to the niche they occupy within the Food Forest: 1. Tall Tree Layer, 2. Canopy, 3. Shrubs, 4. Herbaceous Layer, 5. Groundcovers, 6. Vines, 7. Roots. It makes it so much easier to visualize how things fit together within the ecosystem.

So, without further a-doo, as far as I know, here is what we have growing out there. More or less. Mostly more.

1. Tall Tree Layer

Anything that can get over 20′ is in this category. Our tallest trees are around the perimeter of the property.

Alder (Alnus spp.)
Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
Cedar, Western Red (Thuja plicata)
Cottonwood / Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa; Populus balsamifera)
Fig (Ficus carica)
Fir, Doug / Rocky Mountain (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca)
Hawthorn, “Black” (Crataegus douglasii – Lindl.)
Linden (aka Basswood) (Tilia cordata)
Maple, Big Leaf (Acer macrophyllum)
Maple, Vine (Acer circinatum)
Mimosa Silk Tree (Albizia julibrissin)
Vine maple (Acer circinatum)
Willow, Corkscrew (Salix matsudana)

2. Canopy Layer

Somewhere in the 10-20′ range. Because we have a small, backyard system, tall shrubs often serve as the canopy layer.

Apple (Malus spp.)
Bay Leaf Tree (Laurus nobilis)
Beach Plum (Prunus maritima)
Blue Bean Tree (Decaisnea fargesii)
Butterfly Bush (Buddleia davidii)
Cherry, Black, Sweet, Tart (Prunus spp.)
Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas)
Cottonwood (Populus spp.)
Crabapple (Malus spp.)
Elderberry (Sambucus cerulea, S. nigra)
Hazelnut: Contorted (Corylus avellana)
Hazlenut / Filbert (Corylus spp.)
Magnolia “Star” (Magnolia stellata)
Medlar: Royal (dwarf variety) (Mespilus germanica)
Mulberry, Weeping (Morus alba “pendula”)
Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
Plum, Dunbars (Prunus xdunbari)
Plum, Italian (Prunus cocomilia)
Quince (Cydonia oblonga)
Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana)

3. Shrub Layer

Many of the berries, wildlife-attracting, and nitrogen-fixing plants fall into this layer.

Aronia / Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)
Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)
Bamboo (Thamnocalamus crassinodus)
Berberis “Irwinii” (Berberis stenophylla “irwinii”)
Berberis / Red Barberry (Berberis thunbergii)
Blueberries (Vaccinium spp)
Buffalo Berry (Shepherdia argentia)
Cane fruits: Raspberries (Black Hawk, Meeker, Tulameen); Blackberries (Marion, Boysen, Logan, Kotata, Wild Himalayan) (Rubus spp)
Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus)
Currants (Black, Red, Golden) (Ribes spp.)
Goji/Wolfberry: Crimson Star (Lycium barbarum)
Gooseberries (Ribes uva-crispa; R. grossularia, R. divericatum)
Goumi/Gumi (Elaeagnus multiflora)
Highbush cranberries, American & European (Viburnum trilobum; V. opulus)
Himalayan Honeysuckle (Leycesteria formosa)
Honeyberries, several varieties (Lonicera cecerulea edulis)
Huckleberry, Wild / Evergreen (Vaccinium membranaceum, V. ovatum)
Indian Plum (Oemleria cerasiformis)
Japanese Andromeda (Pieris japonica)
Jostaberry (Ribes x nidigrolaria)
Korean Bush Cherry (Prunus japonica)
Korean Rose (Rosa x hybrida Ecos)
Manchurian viburnum (Viburnum burejaeticum)
Mock Orange (Philadelphus coronarius / P. lewisii)
Nanking Cherry (Prunus tomentosa)
Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifolium)
Rhododendrons (Rhododendron spp.)
Rosa Rugosa (Rosa rugosa)
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Salal (Gaultheria shallon)
Saskatoon / Serviceberries (Amelanchier alnifolia, A. stolonifera)
Seaberry / Sea Buckthorn: Garden’s Gift & Male Pollinizer; also Goldensweet (Hippophae rhamnoides)
Siberian Pea Shrub, standard & dwarf (Caragana arborescens, C. microphylla)
Silky Dogwood (Cornus amomum)
Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)
Spice Viburnum (Viburnum carlesii)
Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo)
Viburnum, Manchurian (Viburnum burejaeticum)
Western Spiraea (Spiraea douglasii)
Willows, 8 varieties (Salix spp.)
Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)

4. Herbaceous Layer

A large group of plants that aren’t necessarily herbs, per se, but rather, nonwoody plants that might be herbs, flowers, vegetables, mulch producers, or all of the above. These are the fillers in the guilds. Most of them are perennials or those that self-sow freely. I did not include our standard annual veggies (potatoes, beans, tomatoes and friends), nor every annual flower (snapdragons & zinnias this year?), but I did include annual herbs, such a basil, dill, and calendula, that fill more than one niche, and some of the less common plants (such as grains and some of the Chenopodium species).

Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria)
Amaranth, Hopi Red Dye (Amaranthus cruentus x A. powellii)
Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum)
Artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)
Asparagus, Conover’s Colossal (Asparagus officinalis)
Aster (Aster amellus
Astragalus – Huang Qi (Astragalus membranceas, aka A. propiniquus)
Bachelor’s Buttons (Centaurea cyanus)
Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorus)
Basil, several varieties (Ocimum basilicum)
Basil / Tulsi, Kapoor Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum)
Bergamot / Beebalm (Monarda didyma & M. fistulosa)
Borage (Borago officinalis)
Buckwheat (Eriogonum michx)
Calendula / Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis)
Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria)
Catnip (Nepeta cataria)
Ceanothus (Ceanothus spp.)
Celery Herb (Apium graveolens)
Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)
Chrysanthemum (Shungiku) (Chrysanthemum coronarium)
Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris; A. canadensis)
Comfrey (Symphytum asperum)
Common Bugloss (Alkanet) (Anchusa officinalis)
Coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria)
Coriander / Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)
Cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus)
Costmary (Tanacetum balsamita)
Crocosmia, aka Montbretia (Crocosmia aurea)
Cumin, Black (Nigella sativa)
Daisies / Oxeye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)
Daphne Ceneorum (Daphne ceneorum)
Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva)
Dead Nettle / Purple Henbit (Lamium atropurpureum)
Delphinium / Larkspur (Delphinium)
Dianthus / Pinks (Dianthus spp.)
Dill (Anethum graveolens)
Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia)
Eryngium (Eryngium planum)
False Indigo, Blue (Baptisia australis)
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Garlic Chives (Allium tuberosum)
Geranium, “Carmina Cranesbill” (Geranium spp.)
Geranium, Wild (Geranium viscosissimum?)
Golden Marguerite, aka Dyer’s Chamomile (Anthemis tinctoria)
Goldenrod (Solidago spp.)
Ground Cherry (Physalis lanceolata; P. heterophylia?)
Gypsywort (Lycopus europaeus)
Hollyhock (Alcea rosea)
Hollyhock mallow (Malva alcea )
Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
Hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis)
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Hyssop, Purple Giant (Agastache scrophulariaefolia)
Iris, Purple bearded (Iris germanica)
Jerusalem Artichokes, several varieties (Helianthus tuberosus)
Joe Pye Weed (EutrochiumEupatoriadelphus maculatus?, E. purpureum)
Kale – Walking Stick (Brassica oleracea longata)
Lady’s Bedstraw (Gallum vernum)
Lamb’s Ears / Woolly Betony (Stachys byzantina)
Lavender, several varieties (Lavandula angustifolia)
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis)
Lovage (Levisticum officinale)
Love Lies Bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus)
Lunaria / Money Plant / Honesty (Lunaria spp.)
Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis)
Lupine, Wild & Stream (Lupinus spp.)
Madder (Rubia tinctorum)
Marjoram (Origanum majorana)
Maximilian / Mexican Sunflower (Helianthus maximilianii)
Mignonette (Reseda lutea)
Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)
Milkweed – Asclepias (Asclepias syriaca)
Mints, assorted (Mentha spp.)
Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum spp.)
Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris)
Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Onion – Bunching Onion; Welsh Onion (Allium fistulosum)
Orach / Saltbush / Mountain Spinach (Atriplex hortensis)
Oregano (Origanum vulgare)
Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)
Penstemon (Penstemon harwegii)
Peony (Paeonia spp.)
Phacelia (Phacelia spp)
Poppies, several varieties (Papaver spp.)
Quinoa, Brilliant Rainbow (Chenopodium quinoa )
Red Hot Pokers, aka Torch Lilies (Kniphofia uvaria)
Rhubarb (Rheum x. cultorum; Rheum rhaphonticum)
Rose Campion (Silene coronaria)
Sage, purple & common (Salvia officinalis)
Sage, Clary (Salvia sclarea)
Saint John’s Wort (Hyperium perforatum)
Salad Burnet (Sanguisorba minor)
Santolina (cotton lavender) (Santolina chamaecyparissus – L.)
Savory, Winter (Satureja montana)
Scabiosa (Scabiosa spp.)
Sculpit (Silene vulgaris)
Solomon’s Seal, Giant (Polygonatum canaliculatum)
Sorrel, French (Rumex acetosa)
Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)
Sunflower, several varieties (Helianthus annus)
Sweet Cicely, aka Garden Myrh (Myrrhis odorata)
Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus)
Thyme – common & etc. (Thymus vulgaris )
Tree Spinach / Purple Goosefoot (Chenopodium giganteum)
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)
Verbena / Vervain (Verbena officinalis)
Weld (Reseda luteola)
Wild Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

5. Groundcovers

Ideally, these should take up all the nooks and crannies and fill up any bare space to block out any invasive weeds. So far, I haven’t found that to be the case. Perhaps I should plant more of them. And perhaps I should expand my definition of a “groundcover.” After all, a groundcover doesn’t have to be a carpet layer on the food forest floor; it can stand quite tall and still grow thickly enough to block weeds. Groundcovers can be your annual flowers and vegetables, stashed in available places while waiting for the perennials to grow into their alloted space.

Chamomile – German (Matriarca recutita)
Chamomile – Roman (true) (Anthemis nobilis / Chamaemelum nobile)
Chickweed (Stellaria media)
Chinese Artichoke (Stachys affinis)
Cinquefoil, aka barren strawberries (Potentilla spp.)
Clover, Crimson (Trifolium incarnatum)
Clover, purple (Dalea purpurea)
Cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri )
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpum)
Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens)
Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia)
Crocus (Crocus satifus)
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
Hens and Chicks (Sempervivum Helveticum)
Kinnikinnick, bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)
Lady’s Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris)
Lamium “Pink Pewter” (Lamium maculatum)
Lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)
Micro Clover (Trifolium repens.)
Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium)
Plantain, Rugels & Broadleaf (Plantago rugelii; P. major)
Potentilla cinquefoil (Potentilla Nepalensis)
Purslane, Golden (Portulaca oleracea var. sativa)
Raspberries, Groundcover (Rubus tentalobus)
Rock Cress (Aubrieta “Axcent”)
Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis)
Sedums / Stonecrop (Sedum spp.)
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa)
Strawberry, Alpine Mignonette (Fragaria vesca alpina)
Strawberry, Mock (Duchesnea indica)
Sweet Woodruff (Galium odoratum)
Viola (Viola odorata)

6. Vines

These plants tie it all together from the ground to the canopy. I once grew some squashes that grew right up into the apple trees. Large melons hung from the branches right alongside the apples, and it was quite beautiful, if not a bit crazy. Vines are opportunists. They can choke out their companions as they scramble right up and over everything to get to the light. I have reluctantly added Morning Glory (aka bindweed) to this list because despite my attempts to erradicate it, it still threatens to take over my world.

Chinese Yam (Dr. Yao) (Dioscorea opposita)
Clematis, 2 varieties (Clematis spp.)
Codonopsis (Codonopsis pilosula)
Grapes, 3 varieties (Vitis spp.)
Hops (Humulus lupulus )
Kiwi, Fuzzy (Actinidia spp.)
Malabar Gourd / Fig-leaf Gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia)
Malabar Spinach, Red (Basella rubra)
Mashua Root (Troepaeolum tuberosum)
Maypop Passion Fruit (Passiflora incarnata, P. edulis)
Morning Glory, aka Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.)
Periwinkle (Vinca major)
Potato Vine (aka Jasmine Nightshade) (Solanum laxum)
Sweet Peas (Lathyrus odoratus)

7. Roots

The forest garden teaches us to think in all directions. Underground is yet another niche of productivity: the root layer. Several perennial vegetables fall in this category (many of which are also groundcovers, herbs, or vines). Of course, numerous annual vegetables that are mainstays of our winter diet can also be in this group, but I find that harvesting roots, in general, can be a bit disruptive to neighboring plants. It is good to be aware of the layers beneath the soil, just as there are layers above, so that each plant can find an unencumbered place to grow without having to compete for space.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)
Astragalus – Huang Qi (Astragalus membranceas, aka A. propiniquus)
Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorus)
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale)
Garlic (Allium sativum)
Groundnut, Densituberous and “nutty” (Apios americana spp.)
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana)
Jerusalem Artichoke, several varieties (Helianthus tuberosus)
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)
Licorice, Chinese (Gan Cao) (Glycyrrhiza uralensis)
Mangel Wurzel (Beta vulgaris)
Mashua (Troepaeolum tuberosum)
Oca (Oxalis tuberosa)
Scorzonera (Scorzonera hispanica)
Skirret (Sium sisarum)

Whew! Now to go out there and find all these things!

**~*~**

Reference:

(For a good reference on how to create your own food forest in your very own backyard, my favorite book and the one I started out on is “Gaia’s Garden – A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture” by Toby Hemenway.)